Sublimation is a terrific way to purify volatile solids. In general, the material to be purified is placed in a flask and then heated under dynamic vacuum or atmospheric pressure. The material slowly escapes to the gas phase, leaving impurities behind, and then deposits on an air, water or cyrogen-cooled condenser. For more about the practical aspects of sublimation and handy tips, be sure to consult the Sublimators Page of our Glassware Gallery.
The following are complete sublimation apparatuses. Click on any of these to get a more detailed description, choose a size, or to find replacement parts.